These topics and others may be approached by examining the ideas of great philosophers or current thinkers. Introduction to the theory of deductive reasoning, including propositional logic the logic of "and", "or", "not", and "if
We tested an existing measure of moral intuitions in a new population U. Inwe mailed an 8-page questionnaire to a random sample of practicing U. Introduction In their daily practice, physicians may face a multitude of ethically and morally complex situations that require action.
And why might equally intelligent and conscientious professionals differ on moral issues in health care, particularly on topics like abortion and euthanasia?
The fields of social and cognitive psychology have recently generated novel approaches for defining basic differences in moral intuitions. Ideological divides do not therefore arise first from differences in moral reasoning, per se, but rather from deeper differences in innate intuitions, described by Haidt et al.
Their research characterizes and quantifies how each of these intuitions work in areas of moral controversy. At their extremes, very liberal respondents rely disproportionately on harm and fairness, while very conservative respondents rely fairly equally on all foundations.
In addition to political ideology, religious characteristics have also been shown to explain variances in how physicians make judgments about morally controversial health care topics.
Previous studies in both the U. However, the precise nature of the relationship between religiosity and moral intuitions as rigorously measured constructs has not been well defined, particularly among physicians. In his recent book on the topic, Haidt addresses why one might hypothesize that a lower degree of religiosity would be associated with higher relative ratings of harm and fairness intuitions as well as with liberal ideology.
While the Moral Foundations Questionnaire has been tested in the general U. This study, the first of its kind to examine the moral foundations in the context of medical practice, serves as an important model for using the empirically-based, theoretically rigorous tools of social psychology to understand and inform important ethical debates in medicine.
Data Sharing Statement A complete de-identified dataset is available from the corresponding author upon request. Study Participants and Data Collection The methods have been described in detail previously. Respondents self-identified their primary political affiliation hereafter referred to as ideology by selecting from the following response categories: For analysis purposes, we categorized physician specialties into the following categories: We selected two morally controversial health care topics from the larger survey for this analysis: All items had response categories that were scored on a 6-point scale ranging from 0 strong disagreement with item or not relevant to moral decision-making to 5 strong agreement with item or extremely relevant to moral decision-making.
Mean scores were not calculated for respondents with greater than 2 missing items among the six comprising each foundation. Associations between the moral foundations and demographics age, gender, religiosity, and ideology with level of moral objection to each scenario abortion and euthanasia were examined with linear regression models.
Religiosity ranged from 1 no attendance to 9 several times per week. All analyses were performed using SAS version 9. P-values less than 0. All results presented here are from unweighted analyses. Table 1 Characteristics of the U.The analysis contains an in-depth discussion on AT&T strategic decision in terms of the approach on multiple perspectives by Linstone () and the power model by Parkin ().
She is a religious woman who does not follow the set standards that she preaches. Similar characteristics are exposed in “Revelation.” - Ethical judgments.
Critical analysis of such selected topics as the nature and existence of God, the problem of evil, the justification of religious belief, and the significance of religious experience. Core Transfer Library: Behavioral Sciences/Humanities (ISH ).
Inquiry into the nature of sport and analysis of its ethical, social, and aesthetic dimensions. Topics may include embodiment, competition, fair play, sportspersonship, violence, racial and gender equity, ergogenic aids, nonhuman animals in sports, sports on the college campus, and the broader relation of sport to society.
A few of the most important and active topics and subtopics of analytic philosophy are summarized by the following sections. Normative ethics which examines and produces normative ethical judgments; worked on the nature of religious language.
Adams worked on the relationship of faith and morality. ethical analysis As a philosophical discipline whose purpose is to explore and explicate moral and ethical values, ethics is a critical enterprise. To realize this critical purpose, ethics (whether metaethics or normative ethics) .
Importance of Religious Beliefs to Ethical Attitudes in Business Cover Page Footnote * Tisha Emerson is Associate Professor and Joseph McKinney is the Ben H. Williams Professor of.